William H. Knapp III

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1. "Do men and women process spatial information differently?" This is an example of what?
Alternative Hypothesis
Null Hypothesis.
Research Question.
All of the above.

2. "Taking research methods before taking cognitive psychology does not improve performance on cognitive psychology examinations." This is an example of what?
Alternative Hypothesis
Null Hypothesis.
Research Question.
All of the above.

3. "Child abuse leads to alcoholism." This is an example of what?
Alternative Hypothesis
Null Hypothesis.
Research Question.
All of the above.

4. What is a p-value.
Probability of observing the event you observed.
Probability of observing events like the one you observed.
Probability of observing events as or more extreme than the one you observed.
Probability of observing any event in the outcome space.

5. What statement could I attach to the answer to the previous question to make it more correct.
Assuming that alpha is true.
Assuming the null hypothesis is true.
Assuming the null hypothesis is false.
Assuming the probability of other events add up to one.

6. Why do we test the null hypothesis. Choose all that apply.
Because we should assume no effect or difference from the status quo unless we have sufficient evidence to conclude otherwise.
It provides parameters that we need to calculate p-values.
The null hypothesis is the scientifically more interesting hypothesis.
Because we want to disprove the null hypothesis.

7. What is alpha. Choose the best answer.
The probability of incorrectly rejecting the null hypothesis.
The probability of incorrectly failing to reject the null hypothesis.
The probability of incorrectly accepting the null hypothesis.
The probability of incorrectly accepting the alternative hypothesis.

8. What is alpha.
The minimum p-value we'll use to reject the null hypothesis.
The maximum p-value we'll use to reject the null hypothesis.
The smallest event probability we would expect to see in a series of statistical experiments.
The largest event probability we would expect to see in a series of statistical experiments.

9. What is the traditional value of alpha in psychological studies?
.1
.05
.01
.001

10. If you are highly skeptical and want really strong evidence before drawing any conclusions, what should you do?
Set alpha higher than normal.
Set alpha lower than normal.
Leave alpha alone.

11. Alpha and the sample size can be set legitimately at any point during the research process.
True
False

12. Adding more participants after calculating statistics to decrease p-values has what effect on alpha?
This practice increases alpha.
This practice decreases alpha.
This practice has no effect on alpha.

13. Let's say you set alpha to be .1 and the observed p-value was .11. What should you do? Pick the best answer.
Accept the alternative hypothesis.
Reject the null hypothesis.
Reject the alternative hypothesis.
Fail to reject the null hypothesis.

14. Let's say you set alpha to be .1 and the observed p-value was .11. How can you describe your results? Pick the best answer.
Insignificant
Non-significant
Significant
Statistically insignificant
Statistically non-significant
Statistically significant

15. Let's say you set alpha to be .001 and the observed p-value was .0009. What should you do? Pick the best answer.
Accept the alternative hypothesis.
Reject the null hypothesis.
Reject the alternative hypothesis.
Fail to reject the null hypothesis.

16. Let's say you set alpha to be .001 and the observed p-value was .0009. How can you describe your results? Pick the best answer.
Insignificant
Non-significant
Significant
Statistically insignificant
Statistically non-significant
Statistically significant

17. Let's say you set alpha to be .05 and the observed p-value was .05. What should you do? Pick the best answer.
Accept the alternative hypothesis.
Reject the null hypothesis.
Reject the alternative hypothesis.
Fail to reject the null hypothesis.

18. Let's say you set alpha to be .05 and the observed p-value was .05. How can you describe your results? Pick the best answer.
Insignificant
Non-significant
Significant
Statistically insignificant
Statistically non-significant
Statistically significant

19. What does the file drawer effect refer to?
Questionable research practices involving p-hacking.
Questionable research practices involving p-value fishing.
The difficulty people have publishing results of null effects.
The probability that p-values decrease as one adds more participants.

20. The binomial test applies only to situations in which there are only two possible outcomes.
True
False